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# Combine filter() and reduce()

**00:00**
In this lesson, you’ll learn what the `reduce()`

function is and how to use it. Also, you’ll learn how you can combine it with `filter()`

.

**00:09**
`reduce()`

is a function that combines elements of an iterable, using a specified function to produce a single result. `reduce()`

is a part of the `functools`

module.

**00:21**
This means that in order to use it, you’ll have to import it from the `functools`

module. The `functools`

module in Python is a built-in module that provides higher-order functions and utilities to enhance the functionality of functions and callable objects.

**00:39**
`reduce()`

is useful when you need to apply a function to an iterable and reduce it to a single cumulative value.

**00:50**
`reduce()`

takes in three arguments: `function`

, `iterable`

, and `initial`

. By the way, the reason that `reduce()`

is considered as a higher-order function is that it takes in another function as one of its arguments, just like `filter()`

and `map()`

.

**01:07**
The function argument represents the operation or calculation that will be applied to the elements of the iterable. The `iterable`

argument is the collection of elements that will be iterated over and reduced to a single value.

**01:23**
It can be a list, tuple, or any iterable object. The `initial`

value argument provides an optional starting value for the reduction. If provided, the function is first applied to this initial value and the first element of the sequence. If you leave it empty, the first element of the sequence is used as the initial value.

**01:47**
Let’s put `reduce()`

into action.

**01:50**
Compute the sum of even numbers. Your goal is to extract the even numbers of a list using `filter()`

and then adding them all together using `reduce()`

.

**02:03**
In this example, you’ll filter the odd numbers of a list using `filter()`

, and then you’ll use `reduce()`

to add all the even numbers and return a single value as the result. You’ll need to import `reduce()`

first: `from functools import reduce`

.

**02:21**
Let’s re-create the same list of numbers from compute the square of even numbers example: `numbers =`

`[1, 3, 10, 45, 6, 50]`

.

**02:33**
Now it’s time to filter odd numbers from this list. You’ve already done this multiple times. You’ll need a predicate function, `is_even`

, that checks the remainder of a number when divided by `2`

. `def is_even()`

, `number`

as an input, `return number % 2 == 0`

.

**02:54**
So if the number is divided by `2`

, and the remainder is `0`

, `is_even()`

will return `True`

.

**03:02**
Now you can use the `filter()`

function with `is_even`

as its predicate function and `numbers`

as its iterable and store the results in `even_numbers`

.

**03:11**
`even numbers = list(filter())`

, `is_even`

as a predicate function and `numbers`

as an iterable.

**03:22**
Let’s check the even numbers. You got `10`

, `6`

, and `50`

, so you have successfully filtered odd numbers. Perfect. Now that you have your even numbers, it’s time to use `reduce()`

to add them all together.

**03:37**
`reduce()`

. As reduce’s function argument, let’s create a lambda function that takes two numbers, `a`

and `b`

and returns `a + b`

. `even_numbers`

as reduce’s iterable argument.

**03:50**
Before you see the results, let’s think about what you expect to see here. You’re adding all the even numbers together, and `reduce()`

is meant to give you a single value representing their sum.

**04:03**
`10`

plus `6`

plus `50`

is equal to `66`

, so you expect to see `66`

here. Let’s see if it worked. And it did.

**04:13**
You got `66`

. When you called `reduce()`

, it started from the first two values of `even_numbers`

, so `10`

and `6`

.

**04:21**
Then it applied the lambda function that you created on them. `10`

plus `6`

is equal to `16`

, so the first cumulative result, which is called an accumulator, is `16`

. Now `16`

is going to be added to the next element, which is `50`

, so `16`

plus `50`

equals `66`

, and since there are no more elements, `reduce()`

returns a single value of `66`

, which is the sum up all the numbers in `even_numbers`

list.

**04:53**
You can turn this into a one-liner. Instead of creating a new list, like `even_numbers`

, you can directly use `filter()`

as reduce’s iterable argument because, as you know, `filter()`

returns an iterator.

**05:07**
Let’s keep everything the same, but instead of using `even_numbers`

, let’s use `filter()`

directly `reduce()`

, `lambda`

keyword, `a`

and `b`

as input numbers, returning `a + b`

, and `filter()`

as reduce’s function argument.

**05:26**
Let’s put in `is_even`

and `numbers`

as the iterable. Let’s see if you get `66`

again. And you do. To recap, `filter()`

extracted the even numbers of the `numbers`

list and returned an iterator. You’re using that iterator directly as reduce’s iterable argument.

**05:47**
Then `reduce()`

started from the first two elements of the iterable, so `10`

and `6`

, and applied the lambda function that you created and added them together. Now you have an accumulator of `16`

.

**06:03**
Next, `reduce()`

added the third element of the iterable, which is `50`

, to the accumulator, so `16`

plus `50`

equals `66`

.

**06:12**
That was all of the values in the iterator that `filter()`

produced, so `reduce()`

returns `66`

, which is the sum of all the elements of its iterator.

**06:24**
By the way, you may have noticed unlike `filter()`

and `map()`

, where you needed to call the `list()`

function on the result, you don’t need to do that here since what you get is a single value, not an iterator.

**06:37**
Good job! You just used `reduce()`

and `filter()`

to compute the sum of even numbers of a list.

**Negar Vahid** RP Team on July 11, 2023

Hey there @Karel Dongen That’s a great question. This solution definitely is Pythonic and showcases the power of lambda functions and filter even further. However, it makes the code a little less readable. Hats off to you for coming up with this pro solution!

Become a Member to join the conversation.

Karel Dongenon July 10, 2023Any reason its not reduced to:

As that gives te same outcome.