**Hint:**You can adjust the default video playback speed in your account settings.

**Hint:**You can set your subtitle preferences in your account settings.

**Sorry!**Looks like there’s an issue with video playback 🙁 This might be due to a temporary outage or because of a configuration issue with your browser. Please see our video player troubleshooting guide to resolve the issue.

# Length, Membership, and Iteration

**Sets in Python**

James Uejio
03:07

**00:00**
Let’s talk about different ways to operate on a set, starting with length. `len(x)`

will compute the length of a set. The argument needs to be an iterable, and because set are iterables, `len()`

of a set works.

**00:14**
But this is actually how you get the length of any iterable, so `len()`

of a list or `len()`

of a tuple would also get the length of those corresponding data structures. Let’s look at an example.

**00:24**
`a`

is a set of `{1, 1, 2}`

. What is the length? Well, it’s actually `2`

because sets cannot contain duplicates. So when we define the set with two `1`

values, our resulting set is actually just the set of `{1, 2}`

.

**00:40**
We can get the length of the empty set, which is `0`

. And here, let’s look at a little more complicated example. `b`

is a set with a tuple, `{(1, 2), 2}`

.

**00:51**
The length is `2`

because we’re looking at how many elements the set `b`

has in it. We’re not looking at how many elements those elements have.

**01:01**
We just look at how many elements are in `b`

and there’s only two, there’s a tuple and the number `2`

.

**01:08**
Let’s move on to checking membership in a set. Checking membership is another way of saying “checking if an element exists in the set.” We use the `in`

syntax, so `<elem> in x`

and it returns a Boolean which indicates if an element exists in a set.

**01:24**
`x`

just has to be an iterable, and just like `len()`

, this will work on any iterable, and because sets are iterables, this will work. Here we have the set `{'foo', 'bar'}`

.

**01:35**
We check `'foo' in x`

, the string `'foo'`

—that’s `True`

. We check `'baz' in x`

—that’s `False`

.

**01:43**
We check `'baz' not in x`

. That will say “Is the element `'baz'`

not in our set?” That is `True`

, because `'baz'`

is not in `x`

.

**01:52**
`not 'baz' in x`

will evaluate “Is `'baz' in x`

?” And then `not`

that value, which is also `True`

because `'baz' in x`

returns `False`

, and `not False`

is `True`

.

**02:04**
I prefer the `'baz' not in x`

, just because sort of from an English standpoint, it makes more sense to me to just say `'baz' not in x`

. That’s `True`

.

**02:14**
So, to iterate or loop over a set, use the same syntax as you would a list or tuple, or any iterable for that matter. But note, you cannot slice or index sets because they’re not ordered, so that doesn’t really make sense to slice some of them or get the zeroth index or something like that. So, here’s an example. We have a set with `{'foo', 'bar', 'baz'}`

.

**02:36**
We say `for elem in x:`

you print the `elem`

, and it’ll just print out like that. Also note that they are in a unordered fashion, so you cannot assume any sort of ordering to them. But this is useful if you want to just print out all the elements or maybe loop through and compare them with something else. Here, we try to index. It errors, because it says `'set' is not subscriptable`

.

**Bartosz Zaczyński** RP Team on March 6, 2023

**@tonypy** You can use Python’s `collections.Counter`

as a multiset: realpython.com/python-counter/#using-counter-instances-as-multisets

**tonypy** on March 6, 2023

OK, not heard of multisets, thx for the feedback, I’ll take the course. In the meantime it would be useful to update the course to add a comment about mutisets and refer students to the course you suggest.

Become a Member to join the conversation.

tonypyon March 5, 2023As sets cannot have allow duplicate elements, how can you define a set a = {1, 1, 2} which has duplicates?