All human faces share some similarities. If you look at a photograph showing a person’s face, you will see, for example, that the eye region is darker than the bridge of the nose. The cheeks are also brighter than the eye region. We can use these properties to help us understand if an image contains a human face.
A simple way to find out which region is lighter or darker is to sum up the pixel values of both regions and comparing them. The sum of pixel values in the darker region will be smaller than the sum of pixels in the lighter region. This can be accomplished using Haar-like features.
A Haar-like feature is represented by taking a rectangular part of an image and dividing that rectangle into multiple parts. They are often visualized as black and white adjacent rectangles.