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Operators and Built-in Functions

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In this lesson, you’ll see how operators and Python’s built-in functions can be applied to lists. Several Python operators can be used with lists. in and not in are membership operators and can be used with lists. A membership operator used on a list:

  • Returns True if the first operand is contained within the second
  • Returns False otherwise
  • Can also be used as not in

Here’s an example:

>>>
>>> a = ['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']

>>> 'spam' in a
True
>>> 'egg' in a
True
>>> 'kiwi' in a
False
>>> 'kiwi' not in a
True

Here’swhat happens with the concatenation (+) and replication (*) operators:

  • The concatenation (+) operator concatenates the operands.
  • The replication (*) operator creates multiple concatenated copies.

Here’s an example:

>>>
>>> a 
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']

>>> a + ['kiwi', 'mango']
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster', 'kiwi', 'mango']

>>> a
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> a * 2
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster', 'spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> 2 * a
['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster', 'spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']

Several Python built-in functions can also be used with lists:

  • len() returns the length of the list.
  • min() returns the object from the list with the smallest value.
  • max() returns the object from the list with the highest value.

Here’s an example:

>>>
>>> a = ['spam', 'egg', 'bacon', 'tomato', 'ham', 'lobster']
>>> len(a)
6
>>> b = [4, 99, 55, 23, 5, 6]
>>> b
[4, 99, 55, 23, 5, 6]
>>> len(b)
6
>>> min(b)
4
>>> max(b)
99

>>> min(a)
'bacon'
>>> max(a)
'tomato'

>>> c = ['apple', 'bacon', 'Asparagus', 'Zebra']
>>> c
['apple', 'bacon', 'Asparagus', 'Zebra']
>>> min(c)
'Asparagus'
>>> max(c)
'bacon'

>>> ord('A')
65
>>> ord('a')
97
>>> ord('z')
122
>>> ord('Z')
90
>>> max(c)
'bacon'

>>> d = [2, 3, 5, 8, 'apple', 'bacon', 'spam']
>>> len(d)
7
>>> min(d)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<input>", line 1, in <module>
    min(d)
TypeError: '<' not supported between instances of 'str' and 'int'

Comments & Discussion

mnemonic6502 on Feb. 5, 2020

This should be the learning template all video tutorials should adopt on this site, great job!

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